logo logo European Journal of Educational Management

EUJEM is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.

Subscribe

Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
Headquarters
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
distributed and transformational leadership human resources management school leadership development underperforming high needs schools

How Do Distributed and Transformational Leadership Teams Improve Working Conditions and Student Learning in Underperforming High-Needs Schools?

Henry Tran , Jingtong Dou , Rose Ylimaki , Lyntte Brunderman

Theories of distributed leadership suggest that organizational learning and change results not from the efforts of a single individual, but rather fro.

T

Theories of distributed leadership suggest that organizational learning and change results not from the efforts of a single individual, but rather from a network of people working within their broader systems. Team empowering leadership enhances human resources development of the organization to promote the sharing of knowledge that is necessary for change. In this study, we study transformational and distributed leadership team that have been linked to improving working conditions and students’ learning in high-needs schools. Specifically, we highlight a team-based intervention where positive organizational improvements were made to academically struggling schools, and then qualitatively examined the associated processes to understand what enabled the occurrence of those positive changes. We find that the team structure allowed for the clarification of expectations, enhancement of communication, and improvement of educator working conditions through professional development support and distribution of leadership responsibility, which ultimately resulted in improvement in school culture and performance.

Keywords: Distributed and transformational leadership, human resources management, school leadership development, underperforming high-needs schools.

cloud_download PDF
Cite
Article Metrics
Views
1244
Download
827
Citations
Crossref
0

References

Achinstein, B., Ogawa, R. T., Sexton, D., & Freitas, C. (2010). Retaining teachers of color: A pressing problem and a potential strategy for “hard-to-staff” schools. Review of Educational Research, 80(1), 71–107. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654309355994

Afshari, L., & Hadian Nasab, A. (2021). Enhancing organizational learning capability through managing talent: Mediation effect of intellectual capital. Human Resource Development International24(1), 48-64. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678868.2020.1727239

Allensworth, E., Ponisciak, S., & Mazzeo, C. (2009). The schools teachers leave: Teacher mobility in Chicago Public Schools. Consortium on Chicago School Research. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505882.pdf

Anderson, M. (2017). Transformational leadership in education: A review of existing literature. International Social Science Review, 93(1), 4. https://bit.ly/3HaPkHx  

Arizona State Board of Education. (n.d.). A-F Letter Grades. https://azsbe.az.gov/f-school-letter-grades

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman.

Barber, M., Whelan, F., & Clark, M. (2010). Capturing the leadership premium. How the world’s top school systems are building leadership capacity for the future. McKinsey and Company. https://bit.ly/3JHZHUP

Bartanen, B., Grissom, J. A., & Rogers, L. K. (2019). The impacts of principal turnover. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis41(3), 350-374. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373719855044

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership: Good, better, best. Organizational Dynamics13(3), 26-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(85)90028-2

Billingsley, B., & Banks, A. (2018). Leadership for inclusive schools 1995–2015. In Handbook  of leadership and administration for special education (pp. 196-220). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315226378-13

Boal, K. B., & Hooijberg, R. (2000). Strategic leadership research: Moving on. The Leadership Quarterly11(4), 515-549. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(00)00057-6

Boselie, P., & Thunnissen, M. (2017). Talent management in the public sector. In The Oxford handbook of talent management. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198758273.013.9

Brown, C., MacGregor, S., & Flood, J. (2020). Can models of distributed leadership be used to mobilise networked generated innovation in schools? A case study from England. Teaching and Teacher Education, 94, 103101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103101

Buckman, D. (2022). The role of principals in South Carolina’s teacher shortage. In How did we get here? (Tran & The Decay of the Teaching Profession. IAP. In press.

Burke, C. S., Stagl, K. C., Klein, C., Goodwin, G. F., Salas, E., & Halpin, S. M. (2006). What type of leadership behaviors are functional in teams? A meta-analysis. The Leadership Quarterly17(3), 288-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.007

Burke, C. S., Stagl, K. C., Salas, E., Pierce, L., & Kendall, D. (2006). Understanding team adaptation: A conceptual analysis and model. Journal of Applied Psychology91(6), 1189. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.6.1189

Burkhauser, S. (2017). How much do school principals matter when it comes to teacher working conditions? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis39(1), 126-145. https://doi/org/10.3102/0162373716668028

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. Harper & Row Publishers.

Calderhead, J., Denicolo, P., & Day, C. (2012). Research on Teacher Thinking (RLE Edu N): Understanding Professional Development. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103101

Castillo-Montoya, M. (2016). Preparing for Interview Research: The Interview Protocol Refinement Framework. Qualitative Report21(5), 811-830. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2016.2337

Chuang, C. H., Jackson, S. E., & Jiang, Y. (2016). Can knowledge-intensive teamwork be managed? Examining the roles of HRM systems, leadership, and tacit knowledge. Journal of Management, 42(2), 524-554. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206313478189

Collins, C. J., & Smith, K. G. (2006). Knowledge exchange and combination: The role of human resource practices in the performance of high-technology firms. Academy of Management Journal49(3), 544-560. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2006.21794671

Day, C. (2009). Capacity building through layered leadership: Sustaining the turnaround. In Distributed leadership (pp. 121-137). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9737-9_7

Day, C., Calderhead, J., & Denicolo, P. (1993). Research on teacher thinking: Understanding professional development. Falmer Press.

De Caluwe, L., & Vermaak, H. (2003). Learning to change: A guide for organization change agents. Sage.

Desimone, L., Porter, A., Birman, B., Garet, M., & Yoon, K. (2002). How do district management and implementation strategies relate to the quality of the professional development that districts provide to teachers? Teachers College Record, 104(7). 1265- 1312. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9620.00204

Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open? Academy of Management Journal50(4), 869-884. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2007.26279183

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. First Touchstone Edition.

Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly44(2), 350-383. https://doi.org/10.2307/2666999

Flora, J. (2020). The more things change, the more things remain the same: A reflection on my career in education HR. Journal of Education Human Resources. 38(2), 329-335. https://doi.org/10.3138/jehr-2020-0010

Foster, W. P. (1986). Paradigms and promises: New approaches to educational administration. Prometheus.

Garcia, S. (2015). Improving innovation with organizational network analysis. OD Practitioner, 47(2), 10-16.

Goddard, Y. L., Goddard, R. D., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2007). A theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools. Teachers College Record, 109(4), 877-896. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146810710900401

Gronn, P. (2000). Distributed properties: A new architecture for leadership. Educational Management Administration28(3), 317-338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263211X000283006

Groves, K. S. (2016). Testing a moderated mediation model of transformational leadership, values, and organization change. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies27(1),35-48. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051816662614

Guarino, C. M., Santibanez, L., & Daley, G. A. (2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A        review of the recent empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 76, 173–208.             https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543076002173

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2010). Leadership for learning: Does collaborative leadership make a difference in school improvement?. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 38(6), 654-678. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143210379060

Hargreaves, A. (2019). Teacher collaboration: 30 years of research on its nature, forms, limitations and effects. Teachers and Teaching25(5), 603-621. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2019.1639499

Harris, A. (2004). Distributed leadership and school improvement: leading or misleading? Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 32(1), 11-24. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143204039297

Hitt, M. A., Beamish, P. W., Jackson, S. E., & Mathieu, J. E. (2007). Building theoretical and empirical bridges across levels: multilevel research in management. Academy of Management Journal, 50(6), 1385-1399. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.28166219

Hoffman, B. J., Bynum, B. H., Piccolo, R. F., & Sutton, A. W. (2011). Person-organization value congruence: How transformational leaders influence work group effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal54(4), 779-796. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.64870139

Horng, E. A. (2009). “Teacher tradeoffs: Disentangling teachers’ preferences for working conditions and student demographics.” American Educational Research Journal, 46(3), 690-717. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831208329599

Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 635-672. https://doi.org/10.5465/256741

Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499–534. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312038003499

Jacob, R., Goddard, R., Kim, M., Miller, R., & Goddard, Y. (2015). Exploring the causal impact     of the McREL balanced leadership program on leadership, principal   efficacy, instructional climate, educator turnover, and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 37(3), 314–332. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373714549620

Javed, B., Naqvi, S. M. M. R., Khan, A. K., Arjoon, S., & Tayyeb, H. H. (2019). Impact of inclusive leadership on innovative work behavior: The role of psychological safety. Journal of Management & Organization, 25(1), 117-136. https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2017.3

Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record, 114(10), 1-39. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146811211401004

Johnson, S. M., Reinhorn, S. K., & Simon, N. S. (2018). Ending isolation: The payoff of teacher teams in successful high-poverty urban schools. Teacher College Record, 20(1), 1-46. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146811812000502

Jones, N. D., Bettini, E., & Brownell, M. (2019). Competing strands of educational reform policy: Can collaborative school reform and teacher evaluation reform be reconciled? The Elementary School Journal119(3), 468-486. https://doi.org/10.1086/701706

Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology85(5), 751. https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.85.5.751

Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology89(5), 755-768. https://doi.org.10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.755

Kirkman, B. L., & Rosen, B. (1999). Beyond self-management: Antecedents and consequences of team empowerment. Academy of Management Journal42(1), 58-74. https://doi.org/10.5465/256874

Kraft, M. A., & Gilmour, A. F. (2017). Revisiting the widget effect: Teacher evaluation reforms. Educational Researcher. 46(5), 234-249. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X17718797

Kwong, J., Wang, H., & Clifton, R. A. (2010). Rethinking our assumptions about teachers' job satisfaction in China and the West. Australian Journal of Education54(2), 115-132. https://doi.org/10.1177/000494411005400202

Ladd, H. F. (2011). Teachers’ perception of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual movement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(2), 235- 261.https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373711398128

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Straus, T. (2010). Leading school turnaround: How successful leaders transform low-performing schools. Jossey-Bass.

Leithwood, K., & Louis, K. S. (Eds.). (2021). Organizational learning in schools. Taylor & Francis.

Lewis, R. E., & Heckman, R. J. (2006). Talent management: A critical review. Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), 139-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2006.03.001

Lieberman, M. (2019). Talent management: Organizational network analysis. Workforce Solution Reviews. https://bit.ly/3LQ0vsu

Lortie, D. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological study. University of Chicago Press.

Miller, A. (2009). Principal turnover, student achievement and teacher retention. Princeton University

Miller, A. (2013). Principal turnover and student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 36, 60–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2013.05.004

Mitchell, C., & Sackney, L. (2009). Sustainable improvement: Building learning communities that endure. Sense Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789087906962_002

Murphy, J., Smylie, M., Mayrowetz, D., & Louis, K. S. (2009). The role of the principal in fostering the development of distributed leadership. School Leadership and Management29(2), 181-214. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632430902775699

Noddings, N. (2016). Moral life and education. Action in Teacher Education, 38(3), 212-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/01626620.2016.1194783

Noor, H. M., Adi, M. N. M., & Kamaruddin, N. K. (2018). Fostering innovative workforce behavior through transformation leadership: A case study among Enterprise 50 award companies. Advanced Science Letters24(5), 3279-3285. https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2018.11358

Paauwe, J. (2009). HRM and performance: Achievements, methodological issues and prospects. Journal of Management Studies, 46(1), 129–142. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2008.00809.x

Pascal, C. (2004). Foreword in Schweyer, A.(ed): Talent management systems: Best practices in technology solutions for recruitment, retention and workforce planning. John Wiley & Sons.

Player, D., & Katz, V. (2016). Assessing school turnaround: Evidence from Ohio. The Elementary School Journal, 116(4), 675-698. https://doi.org/10.1086/686467

Richardson, B. K., Alexander, A., & Castleberry, T. (2008). Examining teacher turnover in low-performing, multi-cultural schools: Relationships among emotional labor, communication symmetry, and intent to leave. Communication Research Reports, 25(1), 10-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090701831743

Ronfeldt, M., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2013). How teacher turnover harms student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 50(1), 4–36. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831212463813

Rydell, A., & Andersson, I. M. (2019). Work environment investments: outcomes from three cases. International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics25(1), 138-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2017.1374583

Sagnak, M. (2010). The relationship between transformational school leadership and ethical climate. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice10(2), 1135-1152. https://bit.ly/36lxDrS  

Saltman, K. J. (2014). Neoliberalism and corporate school reform:“ Failure” and “creative destruction”. Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 36(4), 249-259. https://doi.org/10.1080/10714413.2014.938564

Senge, P. M., Cambron-McCabe, N., Lucas, T., Smith, B., & Dutton, J. (2012). Schools that learn (updated and revised): A fifth discipline field book for educators, parents, and everyone who cares about education. Crown Business.

Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science4(4), 577-594. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.4.4.577

Simon, N., & Moore Johnson, S. (2015). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Teachers College Record117(3), 1-36. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146811511700305

Snodgrass Rangel, V. (2018). A review of the literature on principal turnover. Review of Educational Research88(1), 87-124. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654317743197

Spillane, J. P. (2005). Distributed leadership. The Educational Forum. 69(2), 143-150. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131720508984678

Takeuchi, R., Chen, G., & Lepak, D. P. (2009). Through the looking glass of a social system: Cross-level effects of high-performance work systems on employees’ attitudes. Personnel Psychology, 62(1), 1-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.01127.x

Terhart, E. (2013). Teacher resistance against school reform: Reflecting an inconvenient truth. School Leadership & Management, 33(5), 486-500. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2013.793494

Tran, H. (2020). Revolutionizing school HR strategies and practices to reflect talent centered education leadership. Leadership and Policy in Schools. 20(7), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2020.1757725

Tran, H., & Dou, J. (2019). An exploratory examination of what types of administrative support matter for rural teacher talent management: The rural educator perspective. Education Leadership Review20(1), 133-149.

Tran, H., & Smith, D. (2020). What Matters most for Recruiting Teachers to Rural Hard-to-Staff Districts: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Employment Related Conditions. American Journal of Education.        https://bit.ly/3JOODp3   

Uljens, M., & Ylimaki, R. (2015). Towards a discursive and non-affirmative framework for curriculum studies, Didaktik and educational leadership. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy2015(3), 30177. https://doi.org/10.3402/nstep.v1.30177

Walker, D. F., & Soltis, J. F. (2004). Curriculum and aims. Teachers College Press.

Waters, J. T., Marzano, R. J., & McNulty, B. (2004). Leadership that sparks learning. Educational Leadership, 61(7), 48-51. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ716739

Webb, R., Vulliamy, G., Hämäläinen, S., Sarja, A., Kimonen, E., & Nevalainen, R. (2004). A comparative analysis of primary teacher professionalism in England and Finland. Comparative Education40(1), 83-107. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305006042000184890

Weiss, E. (1999). Perceived workplace conditions and first-year teachers’ morale, career choice commitment, and planned retention: A secondary analysis. Teaching and Teacher Education, 15(8), 861–879. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(99)00040-2

Wright, P. M., & Boswell, W. R. (2002). Desegregating HRMA review and synthesis of micro and macro human resource management research. Journal of Management, 28, 247–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2063(02)00128-9

Wu, P. C., & Chaturvedi, S. (2009). The role of procedural justice and power distance in the relationship between high performance work systems and employee attitudes: A multilevel perspective. Journal of Management35(5), 1228-1247. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308331097

Ylimaki, R., & Brunderman, L. (2019). School development in culturally diverse US Schools: Balancing evidence-based policies and education values. Education Sciences9(2), 84. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020084

Ylimaki, R., Brunderman, L., & Moyi, P. (2019). Balancing evidence-based and humanistic education in school development for underperforming Arizona and South Carolina schools. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 20(3), 436-456. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2019.1695850

Ylimaki, R. M., Brunderman, L., Bennett, J. V., & Dugan, T. (2014). Developing Arizona turnaround leaders to build high-capacity schools in the midst of accountability pressures and changing demographics. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 13(1), 28-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2014.884226

Ylimaki, R. M., Jacobson, S. L., & Drysdale, L. (2007). Making a difference in challenging, high-poverty schools: Successful principals in the USA, England, and Australia. School Effectiveness and School Improvement18(4), 361-381. https://doi.org/10.1080/09243450701712486

...