logo logo European Journal of Educational Management

EUJEM is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
gender attitude inequality female manager

The Attitudes of Turkish Teachers toward Female Managers

Utku Sayin , Nazmiye Balci

Gender equality in the workplace and social life has been argued especially since industrialization. Despite the belief that the education profession .


Gender equality in the workplace and social life has been argued especially since industrialization. Despite the belief that the education profession is suitable for women, the education sector has been one of the most discussed sectors due to the low number of female managers. Doubtless, gender stereotypes and attitudes toward women contribute to these inequalities. This research aimed to examine the attitudes, which may be an important part of this inequality, of teachers towards female principals. The universe of the research is consisted of the teachers and administrators at public schools in Adana's districts (Seyhan, Cukurova, Yuregir, and Saricam) province where women held an administrative position in the 2015-2016 academic year. The sample consisted of 818 teachers and administrators. A descriptive survey method was used to conduct the research. Attitudes toward Women Managers Scale were used to collect data. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was applied to analyze the data. For descriptive statistics, frequency, percent, average and standard deviation were used. For the statistical analysis T-Test and ANOVA tests were applied. As a result of the data analysis; significant differences between the groups according to gender, age groups, status and, level of the schools were found.

Keywords: Gender, attitude, inequality, female manager.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics


Ajzen, I. (1993), Attitude theory and the attitude-behavior relation. In D. Krebs & P.  Schmidt (Eds.), New Directions in Attitude Measurement (pp. 41-57). Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2000). Attitudes and the attitude-behavior relation: reasoned and automatic processes. European Review of Social Psychology, 11(1), 1-33.

Akbas, G., & Korkmaz, L. (2017), Women Managers: Struggle to Rise in the Shade of Invisible Obstacles. The Journal of Human and Work, 4(2), 73-86.

Akgeyik, T. (2016). Turkiye’de kadinlarin isgucu piyasasina katilimini etkileyen faktorler: TUIK verileri uzerine bir analiz [Factors that affect labor force participation of women in Turkey: Analysis of data from Turkish Statistical Institute]. Journal of Social Policy Conferences /Sosyal Siyaset Konferanslari, 70, 31-53.

Akyuz, I. (2017). Turkiye’de uygulanan din politikalari icin bir tipoloji denemesi [A typology essay for religious policies applied in Turkey]. Research Journal of Politics, Economics, and Management/ Siyaset, Ekonomi ve Yonetim Arastirmalari Dergisi, 5(1), 143-164. 

Albarracin, D., Johnson, B. T., Zanna, M. P., & Kumkale, G. T. (2005). Attitudes: Introduction and scope. In D. Albaraccin, B.T. Johnson & M.P. Zanna (Eds.), The Handbook of Attitudes (pp. 3-19). New Jersey, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Altuntas, N., & Demirkanoglu, Y. (2017). Adalet ve kalkinma partisi’nin kadina iliskin soylem ve politikalarina bakis: muhafazakar demokratliktan muhafazakarliga dogru evrilisin izdusumleri [An insight to the discourses and policies of justice and development party on women: Projections towards conservatism from conservative-democracy]. Journal of Academic Approaches/ Akademik Yaklasimlar Dergisi, 8(1), 65-96. 

Amanchukwu, R. N., Stanley, G. J., & Ololube, N. P. (2015). A review of leadership theories, principles and styles and their relevance to educational management. Management, 5(1), 6-14.

Arikan, Y. (2014). Gender in education and social gender relations. In M. Jarecka-Zyluk & O. Holz (Eds.), Gender and Education from Different Angles (pp. 34-43), Munster, Germany: EDGE funded, LIT Verlag.

Asar, R., & Celikten, M. (2016). Evaluation of the attitudes towards women managers working at educational institutions. OPUS- International Journal of Society Researches, 6(10), 8-19.

Aycan, Z., Bayazit, M., Berkman, Y., & Borotav, H. B. (2012). Attitudes towards women managers: Development and validation of a new measure with Turkish samples. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(3), 426-455.

Balqiu, B. A. (2013). Perception of women as managers: The difference of attitudes between employees and non-employees. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 78, 330-334.

Berkup, S. B. (2014). Working with generations X and Y in generation Z period: Management of different generations in business life. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(19), 218-229.

Bohl, J. C. (2008). Generations X and Y in law school: practical strategies for teaching the “MTV/Google” generation. Loyola Law Review, 54(4), 775-779.

Cahill, B., & Adams, E. (1997). An exploratory study of early childhood teachers` attitudes toward gender roles. Sex Roles, 36(7/8), 517-529.

Chen, P. J., & Choi, Y. (2008). Generational differences in work values: A study of hospitality management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(6), 595-615.

Calik, T., Kosar, S., & Dagli, E. (2012). Ilkogretim okullarinda kadin yoneticilere yonelik ogretmen tutumlarinin degerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of teacher attitudes toward female managers in primary schools]. Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences/ Turk Egitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 10(4), 638-661.

Celikten, M. (2005). A perspective on women principals in Turkey. International Journal of Leadership in Education: Theory and Practice, 8(3), 207-221.

Crano, W. D., & Prislin, R. (2006). Attitudes and persuasion. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 345–374.

Davutoglu, A. (2015). Turkiye’de ikinci dalga Feminizmin etkisi ve Sosyal Siyaset Konferanslari Dergisi’nde Gulten Kutal’in ilk kadin istihdami makalesi [The impact of second-wave Feminism in Turkey and the first article on women employment by Gulten Kutal in the Conference Journal of Social Policy]. Journal of Social Policy Conferences/ Sosyal Siyaset Konferanslari, 69(2), 159-174.

Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. London, England: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Elsesser, K. M., & Lever, J. (2011). Does gender bias against female leaders persist? Quantitative and qualitative data from a large-scale survey. Human Relations, 64(12), 1555-1578.

Erginer, A., & Saklan, E. (2016). The problematic of transition of teaching profession to a woman’s occupation. OPUS- International Journal of Society Researches, 6(11), 415-450

Fabrigar, R. L., McDonald, T. K., & Wegener, D. T. (2005). The structure of attitudes. In D. Albaraccin, B.T. Johnson & M.P. Zanna (Eds.), The Handbook of Attitudes (pp. 79-124). New Jersey, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Fagenson, E. A. (1990). At the heart of women in management research: theoretical and methodological approaches and their biases. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(4-5), 267-274.  

Gatrell, C.J. (2013). Maternal body work: How women managers and professionals negotiate pregnancy and new motherhood at work. Human Relations, 66(5), 621-644.

George, D., & Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference, 17.0 update. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Glockner, A., & Betsch, T. (2008). Modeling option and strategy choices with connectionist networks: Towards an integrative model of automatic and deliberate decision making. Judgment and Decision Making, 3(3), 215–228.

Guney, S., Gohar, R., Kilic-Akinci, S., & Akinci, M. M. (2006). Attitudes toward women managers in Turkey and Pakistan. Journal of International Women's Studies, 8(1), 194-211.

Hitt, M. A., Black, J. S. & Porter L. W. (2012). Management (3th ed.). New Jersey, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hoyt, C. L. (2012). Gender bias in employment contexts: A closer examination of the role incongruity principle. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 86-96.

Huber, S. G. (2004). School leadership and leadership development: Adjusting leadership theories and development programs to values and the core purpose of school. Journal of Educational Administration, 42(6), 669-684.

Idris, N., Hong, T. S., & Mansor, N. N. A. (2012). A qualitative inquiry of women managers’ competence acquisition. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 395-403.

Imamoglu-Akman, G., & Akman, Y. (2016). Kralice ari sendromu baglaminda kadin ogretmenlerin kadin yoneticilere iliskin gorusleri [The opinions of female teachers about the female principals in the context of the queen bee syndrome]. Bartin University Journal of Faculty of Education /Bartin Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 5(3), 748-763.

International Labor Organization (2016). Women at work trends 2016. Geneva, Switzerland: ILO Office.

Islam, M., & Nasira, S. (2016). Attitude towards women leadership in organizations: A study on government sector of Bangladesh. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 18(1), 112-139.

Jordens, K., & Von Overwalle, F. (2005). Connectionist modeling of attitudes and cognitive dissonance. In G. Haddock & G.R. Maio (Eds.), Contemporary Perspectives on the Psychology of Attitudes (pp. 345-373). London, England: Psychology Press.

Koenig, A. M., Eagly, A. H., Mitchell, A. A., & Ristikari, T. (2011). Are Leader Stereotypes Masculine? A Meta-Analysis of Three Research Paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 616-642.

Koontz, H., & Weihrich, H. (1990). Essentials of Management (5th ed.). New York, NY, McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Directorate General on the Status of Women (2014). Turkiye’de kadin isgucu profili ve istatistiklerininn analizi [The profile and analysis of the statistics of women labor force in Turkey]. Ankara, Turkey: Duygu Matbaacilik.

Kursunoglu, A., & Tanriogen, A. (2009). The relationship between teachers’ perceptions towards instructional leadership behaviors of their principals and teachers’ attitudes towards change. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 252-258.

Martin, P. Y., Harrison, D., & Dinitto, D. (1983). Advancement for women in hierarchical organizations: A multilevel analysis of problems and prospects. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 19(1), 19-33.

Melero, E. (2011). Are workplaces with many women in management run differently? Journal of Business Research, 64(4),385-393.

Metz, I. (2011). Women leave work because of family responsibilities: Fact or fiction? Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 49(3), 285-307.

Mihalcova, B., Pruzinsky, M., & Gontkovicova, B. (2015). The consequences of gender stereotypes in the work of managers. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 1260-1265.

Ministry of National Education (2018). Milli egitim istatistikleri orgun egitim 2016-´17 [National Education Statistics Formal Education 2016-´17]. Ankara, Turkey: Ministry of National Education Strategy Development Presidency.

Negiz, N., & Yemen, A. (2011). Kamu orgutlerinde kadin yoneticiler: Yonetici ve calisan acisindan yonetimde kadin sorunsali [Female administrators in public organizations: Female problematique in administration in terms of administrator and employee]. SDU Faculty of Arts and Sciences Journal of Social Sciences /SDU Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, (24), 195- 214.

O’Neil, D. A., & Hopkins, M. M. (2015). The impact of gendered organizational systems on women’s career advancement. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(905), 1-4.

Polat, F., & Basmaci, M. M. (2017). 2008 sonrasi yeni hegomanyanin insaasi: Rizadan tahakkume gecis [Building the new hegemony in post 2008 Turkey: From consent to oppression]. In O. Durmaz, A. Cevik & G. Gonullu (Eds.), Current Debates in History & Politics (Volume 6, 1st ed.) (pp. 107-138). London, England, IJOPEC Publication Limited.

Price, H.E. (2012). Principal-teacher interactions: How affective relationships shape principal and teacher attitudes. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(1), 39-85.

Prislin, R., & Crano, W.D. (2008). Attitudes and attitude change the fourth peak. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin (Eds.), Attitude and Attitude Change (pp. 3-15). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Reid, N. (2015). Attitude research in science education. In M.S. Khine (Ed.), Attitude Measurements in Science Education: Classic and Contemporary Approaches (pp. 3-46).  Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing Inc.

Reisenwitz, T.H., Iyer, R. (2009). Differences in Generation X and Generation Y: Implications for the organization and marketers. Marketing Management Journal, 19(2), 91-103.

Rudman, L. A., & Phelan, J. E. (2008). Backlash effects for disconfirming gender stereotypes in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 61-79.

Schein, V.E. (2007). Women in Management: Reflections and Projections. Women in Management Review, 22(1), 6-18.

Schuman, H., & Johnson, M. P. (1976). Attitudes and behavior. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 161-207.

Simmons, A. L., Duffy, J. A., & Alfraih, H. S. (2012). Attitudes toward women managers: The influence of social dominance orientation and power distance on men in college. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 27(7), 482-498.

Stamarski, C. S., & Son Hing, L. S. (2015). Gender inequalities in the workplace: The effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-20.

Sen, A. (2005). 24 Ocak kararlarinin siyasal ekonomisi: 1980’li yillardaki reformlar surecinin ekonomik gelismeleri, ic ve dis siyasal faktorlerle etkilesimi [Political economy of 24 January decisions: Economic developments of the reforms process in the 1980s, interaction with internal and external political factors]. In S. Bakan, A. Kucuk & A. Karadag (Eds.), 21. yuzyilin esiginde Turkiye’de siyasal hayat [Political life in Turkey on the brink of the 21th century] (pp. 1165-1196). Bursa, Turkey: Aktuel.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Tas, E. (2017), Okul yoneticiligi yolunda kadin ogretmenlerin karsilastiklari kariyer engelleri uzerine bir uygulama [Career obstacles on the path of school management that faced by women teachers]. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies (JASSS), 60, 493-510.

Tatar, M., & Emmanuel, G. (2001). Teachers' perceptions of their students' gender roles. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(4), 215-224.

Tok, T. N., Yalcin, N. (2017). Okul yoneticileri gozunden kadin okul yoneticileri [Women school principals in the eyes of school principals]. Pamukkale University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 28, 353-366.

Toksoz, G. (2016). Transition from ‘woman’ to ‘family’: An analysis of AKP era employment policies from a gender perspective. Journal for Development Policy/ Journal fur Entwicklungspolitik, 32(1-2), 46-83.

Turkish Statistical Institute (2019, July 1). Istatistiklerle Kadin, 2017, Sayi: 27594 [Woman with Statistics, 2017, No: 27594]. Retrieved from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=27594

Turkish Republic Official Newspaper (2019, January 11). Retrieved from http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/06/20180621-8.htm

Turkoz, E. N. (2016). Ozal´li ANAP doneminde muhafazakar dusuncenin gelisimi [The development of conservative thought during the era of Ozal`s ANAP]. Nigde University Journal of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences /Nigde Universitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Fakultesi Dergisi, 9(1), 103-116.

Ulutas, C. U. (2009). Yoksullugun kadinlasmasi ve gorunmeyen emek [Feminization of the poverty and the invisible labor]. Labor and Society/ Calisma ve Toplum, 2, 25-40.

Unal, I. (2003). Ilkogretim okulllarinda demokratik okul ortamlarinin olusturulmasina kadin yoneticilerin katkisi [Contribution of women managers to the creation of democratic school environments in primary schools]. Education Science Society /Egitim Bilim Toplum, 1(2-3), 108-123.

Yukongdi, V. (2005). Women in management in Thailand: Advancement and prospects. Asia Pacific Business Review, 11(2), 267-28.