logo logo European Journal of Educational Management

EUJEM is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
cooperation principal with teachers educational administration human resources leadership primary schools

Willingness to Communicate and Collaborate: The Key Role of Educational Leadership in Primary Education

Maria Karadimou , Kostis Tsioumis

This article aims to explore the views of primary school teachers regarding the educational leadership exercised by leader teachers at the human resou.


This article aims to explore the views of primary school teachers regarding the educational leadership exercised by leader teachers at the human resource management level, and how this can affect their willingness to communicate and collaborate. The theoretical framework analyzes the dimensions of human resource management by a leader teacher, as a communication channel, team empowerer, and creator of a climate of trust. The research was carried out using quantitative method, with a closed digital questionnaire which was completed by 693 primary school teachers from whole Greece. Initially, the analysis was carried out through descriptive statistics and then selected questions were analyzed by statistical inference test. The findings show a shift towards the model of a transformational leader, despite the country’s education system remaining highly centralized. In addition, the findings show a correlation between democratic and cooperative staff management, with the axes of inspiration and responsibility on the teachers’ side. This article highlights whether the communication skills of a leader teacher affect the functioning of the school. The research was carried out during a pandemic and thus it was not possible to collect qualitative data using interviews with leader teachers so that we can have a comparative approach to the issue.

Keywords: Cooperation principal with teachers, educational administration, human resources, leadership, primary schools.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics


Abrams, B. J., & Segal, A. (1998). How to prevent aggressive behavior. Teaching exceptional children, 30(4), 10-15. https://doi.org/10.1177/004005999803000402

Amundsen, S., & Martinsen, Ø. L. (2014). Empowering leadership: Construct clarification, conceptualization, and validation of a new scale. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(3), 487-511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.11.009

Antonio, D. M. S. (2008). Creating better schools through democratic school leadership. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 11(1), 43-62. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603120601174311

Arlestig, H. (2008). Communication between principals and teachers in successful schools [Doctoral dissertation, Umea University]. Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:142460/fulltext03

Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of human resource management practice (10th ed.). Kogan.

Athanasoula-Reppa, Α. (2008). Εκπαιδευτική διοίκηση και οργανωσιακή συμπεριφορά [Educational management and organizational behavior]. Ellin.

Balyer, A. (2017). Trust in school principals: Teachers’ opinions. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(2), 317-325. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v6n2p317

Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational dynamics, 18(3), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(90)90061-S

Beer, M., Spector, B., Lawrence, P. R., Mills, D. Q., & Walton, R. E. (1984). Managing human assets. The Free Press.

Björk, L. G. (2000). Introduction: women in the superintendency – advances in research and theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 36(1), 5–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/00131610021968877

Blasé, J., & Blasé, J. (2000). Effective instructional leadership. Teachers perspectives on how principals promote teaching and learning in schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 38(2), 130-141. https://doi.org/10.1108/09578230010320082

Bourandas, D. (2002). Μανατζμεντ: θεωρητικό υπόβαθρο, σύγχρονες πρακτικές [Management; theoretical background, modern practices]. Benou.

Brauckmann, S., & Pashiardis, P. (2009, April 13-17). From PISA to LISA: new educational governance and school leadership: exploring the foundations of a new relationship in an international context [Paper presentation]. 90th Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. A validation study of the leadership styles of a holistic leadership theoretical framework. San Diego, CA, United States. https://cutt.ly/CTWkX3Q  

Brezicha, K., Bergmark, U., & Mitra, D. L. (2015). One size does not fit all: Differentiating leadership to support teachers in school reform. Educational Administration Quarterly, 51(1), 96-132. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X14521632

Brewster, C., & Railsback, J. (2003). Building trusting relationships for school improvement: Implications for principals and teachers. Northwest Regional

Bryk, A. S., Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Luppescu, S., & Easton, J. (2010). Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago. University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226078014.001.0001

Burns, D., Darling-Hammond, L., & Scott, C. (2019). Closing the opportunity gap: How positive outlier districts in California are pursuing equitable access to deeper learning. Positive Outliers Series. Learning Policy Institute. https://cutt.ly/RTWkBES

Bush, T. (2007). Educational leadership and management: Theory, policy and practice. South African Journal of Education, 27(3), 391-406.

Chance, P. (2013). Introduction to educational leadership & organizational behavior. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315853932

Chatzipanagiotou, P. (2008). Ο διευθυντής στο δημόσιο σχολείο. Εισαγωγή και στήριξη καινοτομιών [The principal in the public school. Introduction and support of innovation]. Ιn Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, Summaries of training seminar presentations for directorates of primary and secondary education and heads of offices of preschool, primary and secondary education, vocational education and physical education, Act "Training of education administrators" (pp. 99-102). KERYSDE.

Chen, C.-Y., Tsai, S., Chen, H. W., & Wu, H. T. (2016). The relationship between the principal’s positive leadership and school effectiveness-take school organizational culture as the mediator. European Journal of Psychological Research, 3(2), 12-23. https://bit.ly/3cz54ar

Chitiris, L. (2017). Οργανωσιακή συμπεριφορά: Έννοιες, θεωρία και τρόποι συμπεριφοράς για αποτελεσματική διοίκηση [Organizational behavior: Concepts, theory and ways of behavior for effective management]. Benos.

Dagenais-Desmarais, V., Forest, J., Girouard, S., & Crevier-Braud, L. (2010). The importance of need supportive relationships for motivation and psychological health at work. In N. Weinstein (Ed.), Human motivation and interpersonal relationships—Theory, research, and applications (pp. 263– 297). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8542-6_12

Daly, A. J., Moolenaar, N. M., Bolivar, J. M., & Burke, P. (2010). Relationships in reform: The role of teachers' social networks. Journal of educational administration, 48(3), 359-391. https://doi.org/10.1108/09578231011041062

Day, C., Gu, Q., & Sammons, P. (2016). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference. Educational Administration Quarterly, 52(2), 221-258. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0013161X15616863

Day, C., & Sammons, P. (2013). Successful leadership: A review of the international literature. CfBT Education Trust. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED546806.pdf

Demir, K. (2015). The Effect of organizational trust on the culture of teacher leadership in primary schools. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 15(3), 621-634. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2015.3.2337

De Vaus, D. (2008). Analyzing social science data. 50 key problems in data analysis. Sage.

Devos, G., Tuytens, M., & Hulpia, H. (2014). Teachers’ organizational commitment: Examining the mediating effects of distributed leadership. American Journal of Education, 120(2), 205-231. https://doi.org/10.1086/674370

Dieronitou, I. (2014). Unveiling the restricted and extended possibilities of distributed leadership. Researchers World, 5(1), 37-43.

Dumay, X. (2009). Origins and consequences of school’s organizational culture for student achievement. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(4), 523-555. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0013161X09335873

Evangelopoulos, S. (1988). Οι παιδαγωγικές ακαδημίες [The pedagogical academies]. Hellenic Letters.

Fiedler, F. E. (1976). A theory of leadership effectiveness. McGrawHill.

Frosi-Papadimou, C., & Kuimtzi, E. M. (2001). Ο παράγοντας φύλο και η σχολική πραγματικότητα στην πρωτοβάθμια και δευτεροβάθμια εκπαίδευση [The gender factor and school reality in primary and secondary education]. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Goleman, D. (2000). Emotional intelligence in the workplace (8th ed.). Hellenic Letters.

Government Gazette. (2002, October 16). ΦΕΚ 1340/2002 - Καθορισμός καθηκόντων - αρμοδιοτήτων προϊσταμένων εκπαίδευσης, διευθυντών - υποδιευθυντών, συλλόγου διδασκόντων [FEK 1340/2002 - Definition of duties - responsibilities of heads of education, directors - deputy directors, association of teachers]. https://bit.ly/3bNWgNl

Gu, Q. (2014). The role of relational resilience in teachers’ career-long commitment and effectiveness. Teachers and Teaching, 20(5), 502–529. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2014.937961

Hall, E., & Hall, C. (1988). Human relation in education. Routledge.

Hallinger, P., & Liu, S. (2016). Leadership and teacher learning in urban and rural schools in China: Meeting the dual challenges of equity and effectiveness. International Journal of Educational Development, 51, 163-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.10.001

Hariri, H., Monypenny, R., & Prideaux, M. (2016). Teacher perceived principal leadership styles, decision making styles and job satisfaction: How congruent are data from Indonesia with the Anglophile and Western literature? School Leadership & Management, 36(1), 41-62. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2016.1160210

Hauserman, C. P., & Stick, S. L. (2013). The leadership teachers want from principals: Transformational. Canadian Journal of Education, 36(3), 184-203. https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/963

Hinnant-Crawford, B. (2016). Education policy influence efficacy: Teacher beliefs in their ability to change education policy. International Journal of Teacher Leadership, 7(2), 1-27.

Hoffman, J., Sabo, D., Bliss, J., & Hoy, W. K. (1994). Building a culture of trust. Journal of School Leadership, 4(9), 484-501. https://doi.org/10.1177/105268469400400503

Holloway, J., Nielsen, A., & Saltmarsh, S. (2018). Prescribed distributed leadership in the era of accountability: The experiences of mentor teachers. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 46(4), 538-555. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143216688469

Hong, J., Cross Francis, D., Wang, Q., Lewis, L., Parsons, A., Neill, C., & Meek, D. (2020). The role of trust: Teacher capacity during school leadership transition. Frontiers in Education, 5, 108. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.00108

Hoy, W. K., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (1999). Five faces of trust: An empirical confirmation in urban elementary schools. Journal of School Leadership, 9(3), 184-208. https://doi.org/10.1177/105268469900900301

Hui, H., Salarzadeh, H., Noor, J., Ismail, A., & Radz, M. (2013). Principal's leadership style and teacher job satisfaction: A case study in China. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 5(4), 175-184.

Jefferson, V., & Knobloch, S. (2008). Literature review: The role of trust in school organizations. Loudoun County Public Schools.

Kambouridis, G. (2002). Οργάνωση και διοίκηση σχολικών μονάδων [Organization and administration of school units]. Klidarithmos.

Kastanidou, S., & Tsikanderi, P. (2015). Participatory decision-making as a factor for improving the quality and efficiency of the School Unit. Scientific Educational Journal Educational Circle, 3(3), 19-38.

Kent State University. (2021, October 4). SPSS tutorials: Pearson correlation. University Libraries. https://libguides.library.kent.edu/spss/pearsoncorr

Knezevich, S. (1975). Administration of public education. Harper & Row.

Kontaxi, M. (2008). Η φιλοσοφία της εκπαιδευτικής ηγεσίας και η επίδραση του ηγέτη στην κουλτούρα του σχολείου [The philosophy of educational leadership and the influence of the leader on the culture of the school]. In F. Kalavasis & A., Kontakos (Eds.), Θέµατα εκπαιδευτικού σχεδιασµού [Educational design issues] (pp. 7-8). KOED. http://www.koed.org.cy/myfiles/deltia/no22.pdf

Koziori, K., & Alexandropoulos, G. (2020). Η επίδραση του σχολικού κλίματος στην επαγγελματική ικανοποίηση των εκπαιδευτικών πρωτοβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης [The effect of the school climate on the professional satisfaction of primary school teachers]. Research in Education/ Έρευνα στην Εκπαίδευση, 9(1), 35-57. https://doi.org/10.12681/hjre.22354

Krypa, M. (2017). The Importance of communication, cooperation of the leader in the process of leadership in education. European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 2(1), 7-14. https://doi.org/10.26417/ejms.v4i1.p7-14

Kythreotis, A. (2015). Η ηγεσία και η αλλαγή [Leadership and change]. In P. Pasiardis (Ed.) Διαχείριση αλλαγής, σχολική αποτελεσματικότητα και βελτίωση [Change management, school effectiveness and improvement] (pp. 207-234). Ion

Kythreotis, A., Pashiardis, P., & Kyriakides, L. (2010). The influence of school leadership styles and culture on students' achievement in Cyprus primary schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 48(2), 218–240. https://doi.org/10.1108/09578231011027860

Leithwood, K. (2006). Teacher working conditions that matter: Evidence for change. Elementary Teacher’s Federation of Ontario.

Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (1990). Transformational leadership: How principals can help reform school cultures. School effectiveness and school improvement, 1(4), 249-280. https://doi.org/10.1080/0924345900010402

Leithwood, K., Mascall, B., Strauss, T., Sacks, R., Memon, N., & Yashkina, A. (2007). Distributing leadership to make schools smarter: Taking the ego out of the system. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 6(1), 37-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700760601091267

Li, L., Hallinger, P., & Walker, A. (2016). Exploring the mediating effects of trust on principal leadership and teacher professional learning in Hong Kong primary schools. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 44(1), 20–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143214558577

Lynch, D. (2010). The effect of involvement in decision making on teacher retention [Doctoral dissertation, East Carolina University]. The ScholarShip. http://thescholarship.ecu.edu/handle/10342/2923

Mabokela, R., & Madsen, J. (2003). ‘Colour-blind’ leadership and intergroup conflict. Journal of School Leadership, 13(2), 130–158. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603120903386969

Margolis, J., & Deuel, A. (2009). Teacher leaders in action: Motivation, morality, and money. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 8(3), 264-286. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700760802416115

Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

Mathis, R. L., & Jackson, J. H. (2008). Human resource management (12th ed.). Thomson, South-Western. https://cutt.ly/gTWkJZl  

Murphy, J., Smylie, M., Mayrowetz, D., & Luis, S. (2009). The role of the principal in fostering the development of distributed leadership. School Leadership & Management, 29(2), 181-214. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632430902775699

Nerantzidou, A. (2017). Ο ρόλος της προϊσταμένης νηπιαγωγείου ως επιμορφώτρια των εκπαιδευτικών προσχολικής αγωγής [The role of the head of the kindergarten as a trainer of the preschool teachers]. In S. Giosi, E. Valkanos & A. Oikonomou (Eds.), 1st International Scientific Conference Educational Leadership, Effective Management and Ethical Values (pp. 297-306). Σχολική Ηγεσία και Εκπαιδευτικοί Οργανισμοί [School Leadership and Educational Organizations]. https://cutt.ly/HTWk2rf

Ngodo, O. E. (2008). Procedural Justice and trust: The link in the transformational leadership-organizational outcomes relationship. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 4(1), 82-100.

Northouse, P. G. (2015). Introduction to leadership (3rd ed.). Sage.

Nyhan, R. C., & Marlowe, H. A. (1997). Development and psychometric properties of the organizational trust inventory. Evaluation Review, 21(5), 614-635. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193841X9702100505

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2021, October 31). Women teachers (indicator). https://doi.org/10.1787/ee964f55-en

Pashiardis, P. (2017, September 5-8). International perspectives on education and leadership [Paper presentation]. World education leadership symposium (and network)/ Bildungs- und Schulleitungssymposium, Zug, Switzerland.

Petra, V., Brousas, P., & Bahtsevani, M. (2017). Το μοντέλο της διανεμημένης ηγεσίας: Μια πρόταση για το σύγχρονο σχολείο [The model of distributed leadership: A proposal for the modern school]. In S. Giosi, E. Valkanos & A. Oikonomou (Eds.), 1st International Scientific Conference Educational Leadership, Effective Management and Ethical Values (pp. 345-356). Σχολική Ηγεσία και Εκπαιδευτικοί Οργανισμοί [School Leadership and Educational Organizations]. https://cutt.ly/wTWk4bL

Pope, R. L., & Mueller, J. A. (2000). Development and initial validation of the multicultural competence in student affairs-preliminary 2 scale. Journal of College Student Development, 41(6), 599-608. https://doi.org/

Price, H. E. (2012). Principal–teacher interactions: How affective relationships shape principal and teacher attitudes. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(1), 39-85. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X11417126

Raptis, N., & Grigoriadis, D. (2017). Ηγεσία εκπαιδευτικών μονάδων, ηγετικά χαρακτηριστικά των διευθυντών/ριων δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης [Leadership of educational units, leadership characteristics of secondary education principals]. Afoi Kiriakidi

Robbins, P., Decenzo, S., David, A., & Coulter, M. (2012). Business administration, principles and applications. Kritiki.

Rosch, D. M., Collier, D. A., & Zehr, S. M. (2014). Self-vs.-teammate assessment of leadership competence: The effects of gender, leadership self-efficacy, and motivation to lead. Journal of Leadership Education, 13(2), 96–124. https://doi.org/10.12806/V13/I2/R5

Saiti, A. (2021). Is Strategic and sustainable leadership synonymous with effective leadership? Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 18(1), 126-136. https://doi.org/10.33423/jlae.v18i1.4009

Saiti, A., & Saitis, C. A. (2012). Ο διευθυντής στο σύγχρονο σχολείο [The principal in the modern school]. Self-publishing.

Saitis, C. A. (2007). Οργάνωση και λειτουργία των σχολικών μονάδων [Organization and operation of school units]. Self-publishing.

Schoenbaum, N. (2012). Mobility measures. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2012(4), 1164-1231.

Scribner, J. P., Sawyer, R. K., Watson, S. T., & Myers, V. L. (2007). Teacher teams and distributed leadership: A study of group discourse and collaboration. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(1), 67-100, https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X06293631

Snell, S., & Bohlander, G. (2011). Managing human resources (16th ed.). South-Western, Cengage Learning.

Stamovlasis, D. (2016). Μεθοδολογία εκπαιδευτικής έρευνας με στοιχεία στατιστικής [Educational research methodology with statistical elements]. Zigos

Stravakou, P. A. (2003). Ο διευθυντής της σχολικής μονάδας πρωτοβάθµιας και δευτεροβάθµιας εκπαίδευσης, θεωρητική ανάλυση και εµπειρική διερεύνηση [The director of the primary and secondary education school unit, theoretical analysis and empirical research]. Kyriakidis.

Supovitz, J. A. (2018). Teacher leaders’ work with peers in a quasi-formal teacher leadership model. School Leadership & Management, 38(1), 53-79. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2017.1389718

Sweeney, P., Hannah, S., Dimotakis, N., & Avolio, B. (2016). Leader competence and authenticity and the effects of well-placed and misplaced trust on follower performance. In B. Buckman, H. Leroy & E. Steckler (Eds.), Feeling good about me or influence others positively? Exploring tensions in authenticity research. Academy of Management. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2016.14083symposium

Theocharidi, A. (2012). Ο διοικητικός ρόλος των Πρoϊσταμένων Νηπιαγωγείου: τα κενά στη νομοθεσία και στις επιμορφωτικές δράσεις [The administrative role of Kindergarten Supervisors: gaps in legislation and training activities], Educational News/Τα Εκπαιδευτικά, 101-102, 61- 68.

Theoharis, G. (2007). Social justice educational leaders and resistance: Toward a theory of social justice leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(2), 221-258. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X06293717

Thomsen, M., Karsten, S., & Oort, F. J. (2015). Social exchange in Dutch schools for vocational education and training the role of teachers’ trust in colleagues, the supervisor and higher management. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 43(5), 755–771. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1741143214535737

Thomson, M. (1997). Professional ethics and the teacher. Trentham Books.

Tichnor-Wagner, A., & Allen, D. (2016). Accountable for care: Cultivating caring school communities in urban high schools. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 15(4), 406-447. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2016.1181185

Tschannen-Moran, M. (2014). Trust matters: Leadership for successful schools. Jossey-Bass.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Gareis, C. R. (2015). Faculty trust in the principal: An essential ingredient in high-performing schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 53(1), 66-92. https://doi.org/10.1108/jea-02-2014-0024

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Gareis, C. R. (2017). Principals, trust, and cultivating vibrant schools. In K. Leithwood, J. Sun & K. Pollock (Eds.), How school leaders contribute to student success (pp. 153-174). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50980-8_8

Tzotzou, M., & Anastasopoulos, M. (2013). Νέο Σχολείο: Μορφές επικοινωνίας και ο επικοινωνιακός ρόλος του διευθυντή της σχολικής μονάδας [New School: Forms of communication and the communication role of the school principal]. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274959434

Volk, S. C., & Zerfass, A. (2018). Alignment: explicating a key concept in strategic communication. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 12(4), 433-451. https://doi.org/10.1080/1553118X.2018.1452742

Whipp, P. R., & Salin, K. (2018). Physical education teachers in Australia: Why do they stay? Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 21(4), 897-914. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-018-9443-0    

Young-Ybarra, C., & Wiersema, M. (1999). Strategic flexibility in information technology alliances: The influence of transaction cost economics and social exchange theory. Organization Science, 10(4), 439-459. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.10.4.439

Yukl, G. A. (2009). Leadership in organizations. Pearson.

Yukl, G. A. (2013). Leadership in organizations (8th ed.). Pearson.